Tips for preventing breast cancer

Breast cancer is a condition when cancer cells form in the breast tissue. Cancer can form in glands that produce milk (lobulus), or ducts (tubes) that carry milk from the glands to the breast nipple of the breast. Cancer can also form in the tissue fat or connective tissue in the breast.
Breast cancer arises when cells in the breast grows abnormal and uncontrollable. These cells form a tumor usually feels like a lump. Although usually occurs in women, breast cancer can also attack the man.
Breast cancer can not show symptoms in the early stages. In some cases, the tumor may not be felt because it was too small, but may be known by examining mammography. If the tumor is large enough, it is palpated as a lump in the chest. However, not all dents mean cancer.

Breast cancer symptoms may vary, the same could not, could also include:
• The presence of a lump or thickening in the breast tissue that is different from the surrounding tissue.
• Changes in the shape and size of the breast.
• Skin reddened breasts.
• Peeling of the breast and wart skin.
• Pain and swelling of the breasts.
• The blood from the nipple.
• A lump or swelling under the armpit.
• Nipple retracted inwards.

A person experiencing the symptoms above are not necessarily suffering from breast cancer. Pain or lumps in the chest can also be signs of breast cysts. Therefore, it is important to see a doctor if the symptoms above, seems to be a known cause.

Breast cancer occurs because cells in the breasts grow unusually and uncontrollably. These cells divide quickly and gather to form lumps, and can then spread to lymph nodes or other organs.
is not yet known what causes the cells turn into cancer cells, but experts suspect the existence of an interaction between genetic factors with lifestyle, environment and hormones, so that the cells become abnormal and grow uncontrollably.
Risk Factors of breast cancer
Several factors are known to increase the risk of breast cancer. However, someone with a number of risk factors is not necessarily cancer breast, rather than someone without risk factor may be affected by cancer. Someone who had esophageal cancer in a breast had a high risk of developing cancer in the other breast.

Other factors that can increase the risk of breast cancer include:
•    Age. The risk of breast cancer increases with age.
•    Sex. Women suffering from breast cancer are more susceptible than men.
•    Exposure to radiation. Someone who had undergone radiotherapy is prone to breast cancer.
•    Obesity. Excess weight increases the risk of developing breast cancer.
•    has never been pregnant. Women who are pregnant and breastfeeding women always have a lower risk of breast cancer than women who have never been pregnant and nursing women.
•    Birth in old age. Women who are children over 30 years of age are more at risk of experiencing breast cancer.
•    Alcohol consumption. Recent studies have shown that the consumption of alcohol in the least amount of stay increases the risk of breast cancer.
•    Hormone replacement therapy. After menopause, women who have hormone replacement therapy with estrogen and progesterone have more at risk of developing breast cancer.
•    Start menstruation too young. Women who experience irregular periods below the age of 12 years are known to experience a higher risk of breast cancer.
•    Late menopause. Women who have not experienced menopause until the age of 55 years are also in danger of experiencing breast cancer.
•    A history of breast cancer in the family. Mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 could also cause breast cancer to be derived from parents to children. In addition, a person who has close family members who has suffered from breast cancer are also more in danger of experiencing it.

Breast cancer can be prevented by some of the following:
• Routine do breast self-examination (aware). With routine realize, a woman will increasingly recognize the tits herself, so if there is an anomaly like a change of shape or appear bumps, can be immediately checked me to the doctor. Deliberately well done every month on the day until 7-10 after the first menstruation.
• Routine clinical breast examination (SADANIS). SADANIS is a breast test performed by the medical officer. Discuss with your doctor about when the right time to start SADANIS and filter controls for breast cancer that x-rays the breast (Mammografi), as well as the risks and benefits.
• Exercise routine. Do 30 minutes exercise every day.
• Be careful about replacement hormone therapy after menopause. Combination hormone therapy can increase the risk of breast cancer. Consult your doctor about the benefits and risks of hormone replacement therapy.
• Maintain optimum weight. If you have excess body weight, consult your doctor about strategies to lose weight and keep the weight off
• Stop consuming alcohol.
In women who are at high risk for developing breast cancer, prevention can be done with medication or surgical interventions.
Remedy inhibitor of estrogen, such as enzyme inhibitor of Aromatase and selective estrogen receptor modulators, can be used to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women who are affected by this disease.
As for the prevention of surgical methods, doctors can surgery appointment breast (prophylactic amputation) or surgery to remove the ovaries (prophylactic oophorectomy).

Cervical cancer symptoms and factors

The uterus is a pear-shaped organ where a baby is in the womb. The uterus is located in the lower pelvic area (the area between the hips) and is supported by the muscles of the pelvic floor. The lower part of the uterus is called the cervix.
Located in the upper part of the cervical vaginal and sometimes as a cervix. Cancer that starts in the cervix has different properties and require a different treatment of uterine cancer.
The lymphatic system is part of the immune system – the body’s natural defense against infections and diseases. Lymphatic system has two main roles, namely helping to protect the body from infection and draining the fluid from the tissues. This system consists of some organs such as bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lymph nodes. Lymph nodes in the pelvis are most likely to be affected by cancer of the uterus.

Factors trigger cancer of the uterus
The cause of uterine cancer is not yet known for certain. But the main factor that can increase the risk of cancer of the uterus is the hormonal imbalance of the body, especially estrogen. High estrogen hormone levels can increase the risk of a person being exposed to cervical cancer.

Some other factors that can lead to unbalanced hormones are:
•    Early menstruation or late menopause.
•    Obesity.
•    Diabetes.
•    Hormone replacement therapy.
•    The use of long-term tamoksifen.

Since the cause is unknown, there are also no preventive measures that are safe for cervical cancer. However, risk mitigation measures still exist. For example:

•    Keep a healthy weight.
•    Reproduce soy consumption.
•    Prolonged use for certain types of contraception, e.g. pill.

Uterine Cancer Symptoms
The most common symptoms occur in the uterine cancer is vaginal bleeding. About 9 out of 10 of the uterine cancer patients experience these symptoms.
Although not all abnormal bleeding caused by cancer of the uterus, but you still need to be vigilant and should preferably be checked me to the doctor if this happens.

Other symptoms that you need to beware of include:
•    Vaginal bleeding after menopause and menstrual cycle.
•    Excessive bleeding during menstruation.
•    Vaginal secretions or liquids diluted blood.
•    Pain in the pelvis.
•    Decreased appetite.
•    Pain in sexual intercourse.
•    Fatigue.
•    Pain in the abdomen.
•    Nausea.

The women who experience the above mentioned symptoms should be immediately checked me in to the doctor to determine if in fact caused by uterine cancer or not. But whatever the cause, diagnosis and treatment must be carried out as soon as possible.

Prevention of cancer of the uterus.
Because the cause of certain is unknown, cervical cancer can also not be completely prevented. However, you can use the following steps to reduce the risk of developing cancer of the uterus:
Keep a healthy weight through diet and exercise.
This is one of the most effective ways to prevent the disease, including the cancer of the uterus. One way is by exercising at least 2-3 hours per week and eating foods low in fat and high in fiber.

Use contraceptives.
Types of contraceptives that are shown to reduce the risk of cervical cancer is a combination pill used in the long term. Other species that can contribute to risk reduction are Susuk KB (implants) and intrauterine device (spiral) containing the hormone progestogen.

Breast feeding the child with mother’s milk.
When the condition of the mother and child, breastfeeding the child with breast milk. Breastfeeding can reduce the activity of estrogen and ovulation.

Beware of using the drug tamoxifen.
Tamoxifen is a drug used to treat breast cancer in order not to reappear, but Of consumption can increase the risk of developing cancer of the uterus. Consult about the benefits and side effects of this drug, and be sure to consume these medications in accordance with the doctor’s recommendations and instructions.

To Recognize The Symptoms Of Bone Cancer In Early Stages

Bone cancer is a type of cancer that attacks bone. This disease can from children to adults.
Bone cancer is divided into two, namely primary and secondary bone cancer. Primary bone cancer if the cancer appeared and developed directly into the bone. During the secondary bone cancer, a cancer that covers its origins in other parts of the body is to the bone.
The whole bone in the body might be are affected by the disease, but occur mostly in the bones of the lower leg and arm.

The three most important are signs and symptoms of cancer bone disease, namely:
•    Pain. Pain in the area of bone of that was attacked, feel concerned someone of bone cancer and the pain increases during the move. Pain is usually to night constantly felt.
•    Swelling. The area around the affected bone cancer experience swelling and redness. If the swelling in the bone near the joints, a motion would be difficult and limited.
•    brittle bones. Bone causing bone cancer are weak and brittle. Even if it’s hard, could be mild or minor injuries fall alone bone break.

In addition, there are also some other symptoms, such as a feeling of pigeons fingers and numbness, pressing the cancer in the spine innervation, reflected the lump on the bone, the body feels tired, weight loss, fever above 38 ° C, temperature and sweating especially at night.
Adult bone pain symptoms is sometimes wrong than arthritis. It is sometimes misinterpreted as a side effect of the bone growth in children and adolescents. It is recommended to see a doctor if you or your child constantly feeling the pain in the bones or pain continues to worsen.

The bone is formed from various components: osteoid (hard or fixed), cartilage (and flexible), (like the thread), fibrous and elements of the bone marrow (soft, stock go spongy bone in the middle). Therefore, there are a variety of primary bone cancer that affects each component of bone. These cancers include:

•    Osteosarcoma: osteosarcoma is a cancer whose origin of osteoid tissue. This type of cancer occurs most commonly on the knee and the upper hand to win. Osteosarcoma most commonly in children and young adults to find.

•    Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma is a cancer that originated from the cartilage. This type of cancer occurs most often in the upper part of the pelvis, legs, and shoulders. Chondrosarcoma are most commonly found in older adults.

•    Ewing Sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs): this cancer usually occur in the bones, but can also occur in the soft tissues, such as muscles, fat, connective tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissue. It is not clear that where cancer was first formed, but it is believed that cancer was based on nerve tissue inside the bone. This type of cancer occurs most often along the spine, pelvis, legs and hands. ESFTs is most common in children and young adults.
•    Pleomorphic sarcoma of the bone (malignant fibrous Histiocytoma): this type of cancer is a type of soft tissue tumor, but about 5% of cases appear in the bones. Usually occurs in adults and can be found in every part of the body.
•    Fibrosarcoma: Fibrosarcoma is a type of bone cancer, which is rare. This usually occurs in adults and its location on the back of the knee.

Causes of bone cancer
The exact cause of bone cancer are unknown, but the condition will be accepted that are caused by changes or mutations in the DNA structure of the control of cell growth, so that it continues to uncontrollably grow. Accumulation of these cells then form a tumor that can invade nearby bone structure spread or even on other parts of the body.
Here are some factors increase the risk of someone supposedly from bone cancer affected:
•    High exposure to radiation from a treatment of affected, such as radiotherapy ever experienced.
•    Never have a history of a type of eye cancer retinoblastoma if little known.
•    Suffer from Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.
•    Paget’s disease, a condition, a weakening of the bones can cause.
•    Hernia of Umbilitikus disease since birth.

Bone cancer treatment
Treatment of bone cancer depending on the type, size, location, stage (stage) cancers, as well as age and condition of the protection for victims. There are many different treatment options for bone cancer available are among other dissection (surgery), chemotherapy, radiation therapy (radiotherapy) or cryosurgery.

•    Surgery is a treatment that is chosen usually for bone cancer. The surgeon must perform the surgical techniques, specifically for the number of healthy tissue to minimize that would be wasted along with the tumor.
•    Chemotherapy is a treatment with anti-drugs of cancer to kill cancer cells. Usually the anti-cancer drugs combination patients with bone cancer. This time but not more chemotherapy to treat Chondrosarcoma.
•    Radiation therapy, radiation therapy with x-rays (x-rays) called, to kill cancer cells. This treatment is used in combination with surgery. Radiation therapy is often used to treat Chondrosarcoma and ESFT, as well as for patients to refuse the operation.
•    is the treatment with cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen, which is defined to freeze and kill cancer cells.

Recognize The Symptoms Of Skin Cancer

Skin cancer was abnormalities in the cells of the skin caused by mutations in the DNA of the cells, the rapid cell growth, age of cells and the cells losing their base. Skin cancer usually occurs on the skin, which are often exposed to the sun, but this condition can also occur on the skin, is not directly exposed to sunlight.

Skin cancer-Alodokter
Based on the type of cell that attacked, skin cancer is divided into three types, namely:
Melanoma. This is a skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes or pigment-producing cells of the skin. Skin cancer melanoma is rare but dangerous.
Non-melanoma skin cancer. This is a skin cancer that occurs in a different network than melanocytes. Non-melanoma skin cancers are different in two ways as follows:
  •         Basal cell carcinoma (basal cell carcinoma, bcc), skin cancer that occurs at the bottom of the epidermis. Basal cell cancer is a type of non-melanoma cancer is most common in humans.
  •         Squamous cell carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma, SCC), skin cancer that occurs at the top of the epidermis. Squamous cell carcinoma is quite common, but the frequency was not as much as the basal cellular cancer.
Skin Cancer Symptoms
Skin cancers usually occur in regions that are often exposed to the sun, such as the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms and legs. However, in some cases skin cancer may also occur in areas that are rarely exposed to sunlight, such as on the palms of the hands and feet, the underside of the fingers, even in the genital area. Skin cancer can happen to anyone, including people who have dark skin color. Symptoms of skin cancer is different for each type. The description is as follows:
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Bcc usually occurs in regions that are often exposed to the sun, such as the face or neck. Basal cell cancer symptoms that are:
  •         Soft and shiny bumps on the skin.
  •         Flat lesions on the skin are dark brown or reddish brown like meat.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC also occurs usually in areas of the skin that is exposed to sunlight. But on a dark-skinned person, squamous cell carcinoma often occurs on the skin on the body parts that are rarely exposed to the sun. The symptoms of SCC in general is as follows.
  •         Hard red bumps on the skin.
  •         Lesions on the skin that is flat and hard as scaly crust.
Melanoma. Melanoma can grow in any part of the skin, both in normal skin or in an existing mole, that changes become malignant. In males, cancer melanoma usually appear on the face and body. While in women, melanoma often appears in the lower limbs. Good on men and women, melanoma can appear in the skin exposed to the sun. Melanoma can be experienced by anyone, regardless of the color of his skin. On a dark-skinned human, melanoma usually occurs on the palms or the foot and lower part of the finger or toe. Symptoms of melanoma generally occur as follows:
  • Brown lumps with black spots on the bumps.
  • Moles that change size and color or bleed.
  • The formation of small lesions on the skin with irregular edges or lesions are red, white, blue and blue markings.
  • The formation of dark-colored lesions on the palms, soles of the feet, hands or fingertips removed.
  • The appearance of a dark-colored lesion on the mucous membranes in the mouth, nose, vagina or anus.
The following is a list of ABCDE functions about melanoma to distinguish it from regular moles.
  • Asymmetric. form of melanoma generally asymmetric when compared to ordinary moles.
  • Border (the suburbs). The edge of the melanoma Umunya wavy, not round like a normal mole.
  • Color. The color of the melanoma is a combination of two or more colors.
  • The diameter of the melanoma generally exceeds 6 mm.
  • Extension (augmentation). Melanoma will be enlarged from time to time.